Radicals in the Arab world could be particularly seen in two types. The first is where any change is opposed irrespective of its outcome. This type is ultraconservative to religious fascism and has little interest in progress. The other is which aggressively pushes for bringing in radical changes under the name of “revolution”, even if it leads to adverse effects on the society.

However, at the beginning of this decade, both these types as a collective force lead to a great assault against the Arab state, which came to be known as “the Arab Spring”. While the radicals where fighting for their own reasons, the Arab reformers followed a different approach. They were searching for trail that could put an end to the stagnation and bring in a change, while preserving the state.

Even at present, a number of Arab countries follow the approach of comprehensive reform, however in a framework of historical context, instead of in accordance of a single ideology.

In the recent years, several countries in the Middle East — Saudi Arabia and the Arab Gulf countries, or the countries like Egypt, Morocco, Jordan and Tunisia — have seen extensive reform processes.

The reforms in these countries were moving two tracks– one that involved extensive investments in urban development and infrastructure, while second majorly involved upgrading the economic superstructure.

However, these countries, specifically Saudi Arabia and Egypt, also followed an approach of assisting in the public matter, which is why education, healthcare, women empowerment and culture have received high priority in these countries.

Saudi Arabia has also begun to take great strikes towards the building of the nation state. There has been a shift in their approach from “poverty management” to the management of the state and society to the “wealth management” approach. This latest ideology seeks to optimize human skills and talents, as well as material resources.  However, this has been coupled by a return to the values of moderation, tolerance and resistance to fanaticism and extremism.

Despite taking a positive approach in bringing a reform, several countries in the Middle East are still accused of following a conservative way of living.

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