September 28, 2022

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New Webb Telescope observations cast key in our understanding of the Big Bang

New Webb Telescope observations cast key in our understanding of the Big Bang

Well, let’s get started Start with the obvious. The the great explosion Not dead. Recent notes by James Webb Space Telescope The Big Bang has not been refuted, despite some popular articles claiming to the contrary. If that’s all you need to hear, have a great day. However, Webb’s latest observations reveal some strange and unexpected things about the universe, and if you’d like to learn more, keep reading.

Let’s start with the rumours. What about new web data that suggests the Big Bang is wrong? The same kind of data that Hubble gave us years ago. We generally think that the evidence for the Big Bang revolves around two facts: first, that distant galaxies have a higher redshift than closer galaxies; And second, that the universe is filled with a cosmic background of microwave radiation.

The first indicates that the universe is expanding in all directions, while the second indicates that it was in a very hot and dense state. These two are from three corners Of the data supporting the Big Bang, the third is the relative abundance of elements in the early universe.

But these observations are only the basis for the Big Bang model. We have long expanded into these areas to create the Standard Model of Cosmology, also known as the LCDM model. This is the universe that started with the Big Bang and is filled with matter, dark matter, and dark energy. Everything from the acceleration of cosmic expansion to the gathering of galaxies supports this standard model. And the Standard Model makes predictions about other control tests, so we can further validate them. This is where the recent allegations of the Great Depression come in.

JWST can see much deeper than the Hubble telescope. NASA, European Space Agency, Leah Hostak (STScI)

One of these secondary tests is known as the Tolman surface brightness test. It was first proposed in the 1930s by Richard C. Tolman and compared the apparent brightness of a galaxy to its apparent size. The ratio of brightness to volume is known as surface luminance.

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In general, the larger a galaxy, the brighter it should be, so the surface brightness of each galaxy should be approximately the same. Distant galaxies will appear darker, but will also have a smaller apparent size, so the surface brightness will remain the same. The Tolman test predicts that in a static, non-expanding universe, the surface brightness of all galaxies should be approximately the same, regardless of distance.

This is not what we see. What we notice is that distant galaxies are dimmer than closer galaxies. The amount of opacity is proportional to the amount of redshift in the galaxy. You might think this proves that all those distant galaxies are moving away from us, but they actually don’t. If those distant galaxies were accelerating away, you would have two darkening effects. Red shift and ever-increasing distance. Tolman’s test predicts that in an expanding simple universe, the surface brightness of galaxies should diminish in proportion to the redshift. And the Distance: distance. We only see redshift traces.

This fact has led some to propose a stationary universe in which light spontaneously loses its energy over time. It’s what’s called The tired light hypothesisIt is very popular among Big Bang’s opponents. If the universe is static and light is tired, the Tolman test predicts exactly what we observe. And then there was no big fuss.

Back in 2014, Eric Lerner et al. Published a paper explaining exactly this point. It caused a flurry of “Big Bang Dead!” Articles in popular media. The recent allegations about Webb killing the Big Bang began with a famous article by Eric Lerner himself. So here we are. In fairness, in 2014, Hubble’s observations backed up Lerner’s claim, as did Webb’s recent observations. But what Lerner easily omitted from his paper are Hubble and Webb’s notes also LCDM model support.

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A common misconception is that redshifts prove that galaxies are moving away from us. They are not. Distant galaxies are not accelerating through space. Space itself is expanding, putting more distance between us. It’s a slight difference, but it means that the galaxy’s redshift is caused by cosmic expansion, not relativistic motion. This also means that distant galaxies appear to be slightly larger than they would in a stationary universe. It is far and small, but the expansion of space gives the illusion that it is larger. As a result, the surface brightness of distant galaxies dims only in proportion to the redshift.

The cosmic redshift is not caused by the Doppler effect. attributed to him:

Of course, we know that tired light is wrong due to the cosmic microwave background. The still, tired, light universe would have no residual heat from a primordial fireball. Not to mention the fact that distant galaxies would look cluttered (they don’t), and distant supernovae wouldn’t be stretched by cosmic expansion (they are). The only model that supports all the evidence is the Big Bang. Lerner’s argument is an old one that has long been disproved.

That said, the James Webb Space Telescope has found some unusual things. More importantly, it finds more galaxies and more galaxies farther than it should, and that could lead to some revolutionary changes in our standard model.

Our current understanding is that after the Big Bang, the universe went through a period known as the Dark Ages. During this period, the first light of the universe faded, and the first stars and galaxies had not yet formed. Webb is so sensitive that he can see some of the smaller galaxies that formed right after the Dark Ages. We expect these young galaxies to be fewer in number and less developed than later galaxies. But Webb’s observations found highly redshifted, very young, common and surprisingly mature galaxies.

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It’s the kind of tantalizing and unexpected data that astronomers were hoping to get. That’s why we wanted to build the Webb Telescope in the first place. It tells us that although the big bang model is not wrong, some of our assumptions about it may be.

This article was originally published on universe today by Brian Coberlin. Read the The original article is here.